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Self-Care Bibliography

(Adapted from materials very generously provided by Sandra A. Lopez, LCSW, ACSW)

Strategies for Promoting Professional Self-Care and Resilience

Brenner, M. J. (2010). Zen practice: A training method to enhance the skills of clinical social workers. Social Work in Health Care, 48(4), 462-470.

Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (2000). The relaxation and stress reduction workbook (5th edition). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Dewane, C. J. (2006). Use of self: A primer revisited. Clinical Social Work Journal, 34(4), 543-558.

Kottler, J. A. & Chen, D. (2008). Activities manual for stress management and prevention: Applications to daily life. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Rake, C., & Paley, G. (2009). Personal therapy for psychotherapists. The impact on therapeutic practice. A qualitative study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Psychodynamic Practice, 15(3), 275-294.

Ruiz, D. M. (1997). The four agreements. San Rafael, CA: Amber Allen Publishing.

Rothschild, B. (2006). Help for the helper: Self-care strategies for managing burnout and stress. New York: W. W. Norton.

Skovholt, T. M. (2001). The resilient practitioner: Burnout prevention and self-care strategies for counselors, therapists, teachers, and health professionals. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Stamm, B. H. (1999). Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (2nd edition). Baltimore, MD: Sidran Press.

Stebnicki, M. A. (2008). Empathy fatigue: Healing the mind, body, and spirit of professional counselors. New York: Springer Publishing.

Stromm-Gottfried, K., & Mowbray, N. D. (2006). Who heals the helper: Facilitating the social worker’s grief. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 87(1), 9-15.

Impact of Helping: Secondary/Vicarious Trauma and Retraumatization

Adams, K. B., Matto, H. C., & Harrington, D. (2001). The Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale as a measure of vicarious trauma in a national sample of clinical social workers. Families in Society, 82(4), 363-371.

Arledge, E. & Wolfson, R. (2001). Care of the clinician. In M. Harris & R. D. Fallot (Eds.), Using trauma theory to design service systems (pp. 91-97). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bober, T. & Regehr, C. (2005). Strategies for reducing secondary or vicarious trauma: Do they work? Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 6, 1- 9.

Bride, B. E. (2007). Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among social workers. Social Work, 52(1), 63-70.

Bride, B. E., Robinson, M. M., Yegidis, B., & Figley, C. R. (2003). Development and validation of the secondary traumatic stress scale. Research on Social Work Practice, 14(1), 27-35.

Cunningham, M. (2003). Impact of trauma work on social work clinicians: Empirical findings. Social Work, 48(4), 451-459.

Dunkley, J. & Whelan, T. A. (2006). Vicarious traumatisation: Current status and future directions. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 34(1), 107-115.

Harrison, R. L., & Westwood, M. J. (2009). Preventing vicarious traumatizaation of mental health therapists: Identifying protective practices. Psychotherapy Theory: Research, Practice, Training, 46(2), 203-219.

Kanter, J. (2007). Compassion fatigue and secondary traumatization: A second look. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 289-293.

Lahad, M. (2000). Darkness over the abyss: Supervising crisis intervention teams following disaster. Traumatology, 6(4), Article 4.

McCann, L. L., & Pearlman, L. A. (1990). Vicarious traumatization: A contextual model for understanding the effects of trauma on helpers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3, 131-149.

Munroe, J. F. (1999). Ethical issues associated with secondary trauma in therapists. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (2nd edition)(pp. 211-229). Baltimore, MD: Sidran Press.

Naturale, A. (2007). Secondary traumatic stress in social workers responding to disasters: Reports from the field. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 173-181.

Pearlman, L. A. (1999). Self-care for trauma therapists: Ameliorating vicarious traumatization. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (2nd edition)(pp. 51-64). Baltimore, MD: Sidran Press.

Pearlman, L. A., & Saakvitne, K. W. (1995). Trauma and the therapist: Countertransference and vicarious traumatization in psychotherapy with incest survivors. New York: W. W. Norton.

Perry, B. D. (2003). The cost of caring: Secondary traumatic stress and the impact of working with high-risk children and families. Archived at: http://www.ChildTrauma.org.

Pulido, M. L. (2007). In their words: Secondary traumatic stress in social workers responding to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City (commentary). Social Work, 52(3), 279-281.

Saakvitne, K. W., Pearlman, L. A., & staff of the Traumatic Stress Institute (1996). Transforming the pain: A workbook on vicarious traumatization. New York: W. W. Norton.

Stamm, B. H. (Ed). (1999). Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers and educators (2nd edition). Baltimore, MD: Sidran Press.

Stamm, B. H., Varra, E. M., Pearlman, L. A., & Giller, E. (2002). The helper’s power to heal and to be hurt — or helped — by trying. Washington, DC: National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology.

Trippany, R. L., White Kress, V. E., & Wilcoxon, S. A. (2004). Preventing vicarious trauma: What counselors should know when working with trauma survivors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 31-37.

Williams, M. B. & Sommer, J. F. (1999). Self-care and the vulnerable therapist. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Secondary traumatic stress: Self-care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators (2nd edition)(pp. 230-246). Baltimore, MD: Sidran Press.

Impact of Helping: Burnout and Stress

Acker, G.M. (1999). The impact of clients’ mental illness on social workers’ job satisfaction and burnout. Health and Social Work, 24(2), 112-119.

Arches, J. (1991). Social structure, burnout, and job satisfaction. Social Work, 36, 193-272.

Deighton, R. M., Gurris, N., & Traue, H. (2007). Factors affecting burnout and compassion fatigue in psychotherapists treating torture survivors: Is the therapist’s attitude to working through trauma relevant? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 63-75.

Cherniss, C. (1980). Staff burnout: Job stress in the human services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Daley, M. R. (1979). Burnout: Smoldering problem in protective services. Social Work, 24, 375-379.

Gillespie, D. (Ed). (1986). Burnout among social workers. Journal of Social Service Research, 10(1), 1-104.

Jayaratne, S., & Chess, W. A. (1984). Job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover: A national study. Social Work, 29, 448-452.

Kim, H. & Ji, J. (2009). Factor structure and longitudinal invariance of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Research on Social Work Practice, 19, 325-339.

Kim, H. & Stoner, M. (2008). Burnout and turnover intention among social workers: Effect of role, stress, job autonomy, and social support. Administration in Social Work, 32(3), 5-25.

Maslach, C. (1993). Burnout: A multidimensional perspective. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Ivlarch (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp.19-32). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Maslach, C. (2003). Burnout: The cost of caring. Cambridge, MA: Malor Books.

McCarter, A. K. (2007). The impact of hopelessness and hope on the social work profession. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 15(4) 107-124.

Powell, W. E. (1994). The relationship between feelings of alienation and burnout in social work. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 75(4), 229-235.

Poulin, J. & Walter, C. (1993). Social worker burnout: A longitudinal study. Social Work Research and Abstracts, 29(4), 5-11.

Pasupuleti, S., Allen, R. I., Lambert, E. G., & Cluse-Tolar, T. (2009). The impact of work stressors on the life of social service workers: A preliminary study. Administration in Social Work, 33, 319-339.

Schwartz, R. H., Tiamiyu, M. F., & Dwyer, D. J. (2007). Social worker hope and perceived burnout: The effects of age, years in practice and setting. Administration in Social Work, 31(4), 103-119.

Soderfeldt, M., Soderfeldt, B., & Warg, L. (1995). Burnout in social work. Social Work, 40(5), 638-646.

Stromm-Godfreid, K. & Mowbray, N. D. (2006). Who heals the helper? Facilitating the social worker’s grief. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 87, 9-15.

Sze, W. & Ivker, B. (1986). Stress in social work: The impact of setting and role. Social Casework, 67, 141-148.

Um, M. & Harrison, D. F. (1998). Role stressors, burnout, mediators, and job satisfaction: A stress-strain-outcome model and an empirical test. Social Work Research, 22(2), 100-115.

Impact of Helping: Compassion Fatigue

Adams, R. B., Boscarino, J. A., & Figley, C. R. (2006). Compassion fatigue and psychological distress among social workers: A validation study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 103-108.

Boscarino, J. A., Figley, C. R., & Adams, R. E. (2004). Compassion fatigue following the September 11 terrorist attacks: A study of secondary trauma among New York City social workers. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 6(2), 57-66.

Bride, B. E. & Figley, C. R. (2007). The fatigue of compassionate social workers: An introduction to the special issue on compassion fatigue. Clinical Social Work, 35, 151-153.

Bride, B. E., Radey, M., & Figley, C. R. (2007). Measuring compassion fatigue. Clinical Social Work, 35, 155-163.

Deighton, R. M., Gurris, N., & Traue, H. (2007). Factors affecting burnout and compassion fatigue in psychotherapists treating torture survivors: Is the therapist’s attitude to working through trauma relevant? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 63-75.

Figley, C. R. (1995). Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Figley, C. R. (2002). Treating compassion fatigue. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists’ chronic lack of self-care. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(11), 1433-1441.

Gentry, J. E., Baranowsky, A. B., & Dunning, K. (1999). ARP: The Accelerated Recovery Program for compassion fatigue. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Treating compassion fatigue (pp. 123-138). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Kanter, J. (2007). Compassion fatigue and secondary traumatization: A second look. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 289-293.

Radey, M. & Figley, C. R. (2007). The social psychology of compassion. Clinical Social Work, 35, 207-214.

White, G. D. (2001). Near ground zero: Compassion fatigue in the aftermath of September 11. Traumatology, 7(4), 151-154.

Social Work Education

Cunningham, M. (2004). Teaching social workers about trauma: Reducing the risks of vicarious traumatization in the classroom. Journal of Social Work Education, 40(2), 305-3 17.

Dane, B. (2002). Duty to inform: Preparing social work students to understand vicarious traumatization. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 22(3/4), 3-19.

Dziegielewski, S. F., Roest-Marti, S., & Turnage, B. (2004). Addressing stress with social work students: A controlled evaluation. Journal of Social Work Education, 40(1), 105-119.

Moran, C. C. & Hughes, L. P. (2006). Coping with stress: Social work students and humour. Social Work Education, 25(5), 501-517.

Ying, Y. (2008). The buffering effect of self-detachment against emotional exhaustion among social work students. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 27(1-2), 127-146.

Ying, Y. (2009). Contribution of self-compassion to competence and mental health in social work students. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 309-323.

Social Work Settings

Child Welfare/Sexual Abuse

Anderson, D. G. (2000). Coping strategies and burnout among veteran child protection workers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 839-848.

Barth, R. P., Lloyd, C., Christ, S. L., Chapman, M. V., & Dickinson, N. S. (2008). Child welfare worker characteristics and job satisfaction: A national study. Social Work, 53(3), 199-209.

Couper, D. (2000). The impact of the sexually abused child’s pain on the worker and the team. Journal of Social Work Practice, 14(1), 9-16.

Cornille, T. A. & Meyers, T. W. (1999). Secondary traumatic stress among child protective service workers: Prevalence, severity and predictive factors. Traumatology, 5(1), 15-31.

Csikai, B.. L., Herrin, C., Tang, M. & Church, W. T. (2008). Serious illness, injury, and death in child protection and preparation for end-of-life situations among child welfare services workers. Child Welfare, 87(6), 49-70.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27-38.

Horwitz, M. (1998). Social worker trauma: Building resilience in child protective social workers. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 68(3), 364-377.

Pistorius, K. D., Feinauer, L. L., Harper, J. M., Stabmann, R. F., & Miller, R. B. (2008). Working with sexually abused children. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36, 181-195.

Pryce, J., Shackelford, K., & Pryce, D. (2007). Secondary traumatic stress and the child welfare professional. Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.

Regehr, C., Hemsworth, D., Leslie, B., Howe, P., & Chau, S. (2004). Predictors of post-traumatic distress in child welfare workers: A linear structural equation model. OACAS Journal, December, 48(4), 25-30.

Stalker, C. A., Mandell, D., Frensch, K. W., Harvey, C., & Wright, M. (2007). Child welfare workers who are exhausted yet satisfied with their jobs: How do they do it? Child and Family Social Work, 12, 182-191.

Walker, M. (2004). Supervising practitioners working with survivors of childhood abuse: Countertransference, secondary traumatization and terror. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 173-193.

End of Life/Hospice/Grief

Davidson, K. W. & Foster, Z. (1995). Social work with dying and bereaved clients: Helping workers. Social Work in Health Care, 21(4), 1-17.

Jones, S. H. (2005). A self-care plan for hospice workers. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 22, 125-128.

Katz, R. S. & Johnson, T. A. (2006). When professionals weep: Emotional and countertransference responses in end-of-life care. New York: Routledge.

Larson, D. G. (1993). The helper’s journey: Working with people facing grief loss, and lifethreatening illness. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Walsh-Burke, K. (2006). Grief and loss: Theories and skills for helping professionals. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Family Social Work/Family Therapy/Family Violence

Bell, H. (2003). Strengths and secondary trauma in family violence work. Social Work, 48(4), 513-522.

Bell, H., Kulkarni, S., & Dalton, L., (2003). Organizational prevention of vicarious trauma. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services. 84(4), 463-470.

Figley, C. R. & Figley, K. R. (2009). Stemming the tide of trauma systematically: The role of family therapy. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 30(3), 173-183.

Ospina-Kammerer, V. & Dixon, D. R. (2001). Coping with burnout: Family physicians and family social workers—what do they have in common? Journal of Family Social Work, 5(4), 85-93.

Gerontology/Health Care/Hospital/APS/AmS

Badger, K., Rouse, D., & Craig, C. (2008). Hospital social workers and indirect trauma exposure: An exploratory study of contributing factors. Health in Social Work, 33(1), 63-71.

Bourassa, D. B. (2009). Compassion fatigue and the adult protective services worker. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 52, 215-229.

Cohen, M. & Gagin, R. (2005). Can skill development training alleviate burnout in hospital social workers? Social Work in Health Care, 40(4), 83-97.

Dane, B. & Chachkes, B. (2001). The cost of caring for patients with an illness: Contagion to the social worker. Social Work in Health Care, 33, 31-51.

Demmer, C. (2004). Burnout: The health care worker as survivor. AIDS Reader, 14, 522-537.

Egan, M. (1993). Resilience at the front lines: Hospital social workers with AIDS patients and burnout. Social Work in Health Care, 18(2), 109-125.

Gellis, Z. D. (2002). Coping with occupational stress in healthcare: A comparison of social workers and nurses. Administration in Social Work, 26(3), 37-52.

Leon, A. M., Altholz, J. A. S., & Dziegielewski, S. F. (1999). Compassion fatigue: Considerations for working with the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 32(1), 43-62.

Poulin, J. E. & Walter, C. A. (1993). Burnout in gerontological social work. Social Work, 38(3), 305-310.

Simon, C. E., Pryce, J. G., Roff, L. L. & Klernmack, D. (2005). Secondary traumatic stress and oncology social work: Protecting compassion fatigue and compromising the worker’s worldview. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 23(4), 1-14.

Mental Health/Natural Disasters/Terrorism

Butler, L. D., Fischer, P. C., Heldring, M., & Leskin, G. A. (ND). Fostering resilience in response to terrorism among primary care providers.** APA Task Force on Resilience in Response to Terrorism

Campbell, L. (2007). Utilizing compassion fatigue education in Hurricanes Ivan and Katrina. Clinical Social Work, 35, 165-171.

Creamer, T. L. & Liddle, B. J. (2005). Secondary traumatic stress among disaster mental health workers responding to the September 11 attacks. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(1), 89-96.

Leitch, M. L., Vanslyke, J., & Allen, M. (2009). Somatic experiencing treatment with social service workers following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Social Work, 54(1), 9-18.

Lloyd, C., McKenna, K., & King, R. (2005). Sources of stress experienced by occupational therapists and social workers in mental health settings. Occupational Therapy International, 12(2), 8 1-94.

Munn-Giddings, C., Hart, C., & Ramon, S. (2005). A participatory approach to the promotion of well-being in the workplace: Lessons from empirical research. International Review of Psychiatry, 17, 409-417.

Saakvitne, K. W. & Hudall-Stamm, B. (ND). Fostering resilience in response to terrorism among mental health workers. APA Task Force on Resilience in Response to Terrorism.

Sanders, S., Jacobson, J. M. & Ting, L. (2005). Reactions of mental health social workers following a client suicide or attempt: A qualitative investigation. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 51, 197-216.

Ting, L., Jacobson, J. M., & Sanders, S. (2008). Available supports and coping behaviors of mental health social workers following fatal and non-fatal client suicidal behavior. Social Work, 53(3), 211-221.

Ting, L., Jacobson, J. M., Sanders, S., Bride, B. B., & Harrington, D. (2005). The secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS): Confirmatory factor analyses with a national sample of mental health social workers. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 11(3/4), 177-194.

Ting, L., Sanders, S., Jacobson, J. M., & Power, J. R. (2006). Dealing with the aftermath: A qualitative analysis of mental health social workers’ reactions after a client suicide. Social Work, 51, 329-341.

Military

Applewhite, H. L. & Arincorayan, D, (2009). Provider resilience: The challenge for behavioral health providers assigned to brigade combat teams. The Army Medical Department Journal, April-June, 2009, 24-30.

Tyson, J. (2007). Compassion fatigue in the treatment of combat-related traumas during wartime. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 183-192.

Schools

Leyba, E. G. (2009). Tools to reduce overload in the school social worker role. Children & Schools, 31(4), 219-228.

Standards of Practice

Green Cross Academy of Traumatology. (1999). Standards of practice. Available at http://www.greencross.org

NASW (2009). Professional self-care & social work policy statement in Social Work Speaks: National Association of Social Workers Policy Statements 2009-2112 (8th edition). Washington, DC: NASW Press.